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By 1700, the GDP of Mughal India had risen to 24% of the world economy, the largest in the world, larger than both Qing Chinaand Western Europe. Copyright. The Mughal Empire was vast and extensive in the beginning of the eighteenth century. Let us view the causes that hastened the fall of the Mughal Empire after Aurangzeb. He was fond of poetry and had the title of “Zafar.” He took part in the Revolt of 1857. Ultimately in January 1772, Shah Alam II was reinstated at Delhi by the Marathas. Ghulam Qadir (grandson of Najib and son of Zabita Khan Rohilla) occupied Delhi in 1788, blinded Shah Alam II and deposed him. He thus lost the friendship and loyality of the Rajputs. Not only were the Indians defeated but their weakness was exposed and India became as easy prey to other foreign powers too. Therefore, all proved worthless rulers. The invasion affected the impe­rial finances and the economic life of the people adversely. After the fall of the Sayyid brothers Muhammad Shah had a long reign (1719-48) to save the empire. Ahmad Shah was blinded and deposed by this new wazir. But Aurangzeb was a fanatic and could not tolerate the non-Muslims. These misls were twelve in number and each one had a leader. He laid too much stress on simplicity and was against singing, dancing and drinking which were common habits of the Muslim nobles. Nor was it one of the major reasons. The Mughal Empire at the death of Aurangzeb comprised twenty-one Subahs, of which fourteen were in the north, six in the Deccan and one in Kabul (now Afghanistan). His three sons Bahadur Shah I, Muhammad Azam Shah, and Muhammad Kam Bakhsh fought each other for the throne. He was the last great and powerful ruler of the Mughal dynasty. The attempts to reform the administration proved futile and disgusted with the inability and fickle mindedness of the emperor the Nizam chose to pursue his own ambitions. He was a clever man and advocated a friendly policy towards the Rajput’s, Marathas and the Hindu chieftains not only to strengthen his own position but to ensure the survival of the empire. Zulfikar Khan was soon executed by the orders of the new emperor. The anti-Sayyid nobles were strongly backed by Muhammad Shah who wanted to free him­self from the hold of the brothers. He confirmed the agreement reached between his deputy and Shahu in 1711 whereby the Marathas were given the chauth and sardeshmukhi of the Deccan on condition that the Mughal officials would make these collections and hand it over to the Maratha officials. Under Ranjit Singh, the Sikhs power reached the zenith of its glory, but his death was followed by an internal struggle for power. The Mughal Empire was a state that existed on the Indian subcontinent from 1526 to 1858. Ajit Singh of Marwar was given the title of Maharaja and appointed the governor of Gujarat. He followed a conciliatory policy towards the Rajput’s and Marathas but a strict policy towards the Sikhs. Now they became direct aspirants to the throne and began using the princes as pawns to capture authoritarian positions. He imposed jazia and forbade the celebration of Hindu festivals. He abolished the jizyah; gave the title of Mirza Raja Sawai to Jai Singh of Amber and appointed him the governor of Malwa. But by the close of the century it had shrunk to a few kilometres around Delhi. Before publishing your Article on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Let us view the causes that hastened the fall of the Mughal Empire after Aurangzeb. For more than a decade, Aurangzeb appeared to be in full control. After his death, the power of the Mughal Empire declined quickly. Our mission is to liberate knowledge. Here we will read about the Later Mughals after Aurangzeb death- Modern Indian History. Although these misls could not unite for a long time, they carried on their struggle with each other’s cooperation. In the last video, we studied about the rule of Akbar, Jahangir and Shah Jahan. As successors Sayyid the brothers quickly raised two young princes, Rafi-ud-Darajat and Rafi-ud- Daula (Shah Jahan II) who died within months. The Mughal army especially the artillery was still the most important force; administration in northern India had deteriorated but not collapsed entirely. What are the four causes of the fall of the Mughal Empire? However the struggle for power between the emperor and the Sayyid brothers increased and the efforts of the emperor to overthrow the brothers failed repeatedly. 2. Nadir Shah’s invasion inflicted a heavy damage on the Mughal Empire and its dwindling image suffered a severe blow. This ended the rule of the Sayyid brothers in the Mughal Empire. The Mughal rule was still held in high esteem by the people. His first Wazir after the fall of the Sayyid brothers was Muhammad Amin Khan. 1601– Asirgargh proved to be the last conquest of Akbar’s life. His policy of religious persecution of the Hindus, who formed the bulk of the population of the country, hastened the fall of his dynasty. The military and financial position of the empire during this period became worst to the extent that the emperor’s household troops carried off the articles from the houses of the wazirs and nobles and sold them into the market. The later Mughals spent more time in their harems and in pleasure and soon lost control of the states. This oppressed the peasantry to a great extent. In fact, the decline began during the last days of Aurangzeb. Khafi Khan called him Shah-i-Bekhabar (Headless King). Often they proved to be disloyal. They did not like a king who was so much against their ways. 18th centuries, although, technically the Mughal empire didn’t come to an end until. There were many causes for the downfall of this great dynasty. But Muhammad Shah was not a good ruler. The end of the Mughal empire (1707 – 1858) Most of Mughal emperors after Aurangzeb had no greatness reigning for less than 10 years. It was during the reign of Farrukh that Banda Bahadur the Sikh chief was captured and killed. Most of them have been addicted to wine and women. The heartland of the empire lay in the north Indian Indus – Ganges plain around the cities of Delhi, Agra and Lahore. Previously, the contest for power was between the royal princes; the nobles had merely backed and sided with them. His successor Ahmad Shah born of Udham Bai, a public dancing girl, ascended the throne but was unable to cope with the disintegrating forces. The successors of Aurangzeb proved incapable and degenerate. Both Ajit Singh and Jai Singh were later restored but their demand for high mansabs (ranks) and offices of subahdars of important provinces were not accepted. Marathas thus remained dissatisfied. 1586– Kashmir was annexed. • After the death of Aurangzeb, the Mughal Empire eventually declined and inevitably broke. The already declining Mughal Empire received another fatal blow when the Persian monarch, Nadir Shah invaded India in 1738-39. In another war of succession following Bahadur Shah’s death, his four sons, Jahandar Shah, Rafi-us-Shan, Azim-us-Shan and Jahan Shah became involved. Even after the fall of Aurangzeb, they failed to rise to the occasion and grab power. Apart from later Mughal Emperors, we will be talking about Nadir shah, Abdali & Sayyid Brothers. Therefore, all proved nugatory rulers. The Mughal Empire, which had reached its zenith during the rule of Shah Jahan and his son, began to decline after the rule of Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb died on the march,1707. In 1689, the strong Mughal fleet from Janjira commanded by the Sidi Yaqub and manned by Mappila from Ethiopian Empire blockaded the East India Company fort in Bombay, [[Fort William[]]. We will also be discussing about the various battles like the third Panipat battle, Buxar battle, Pallasey, etc. Zulfikar Khan tried to improve the finances of the empire by checking the reckless growth of jagirs and offices and forced the mansabdarsio maintain their official quota of troops. The soldiers and the generals became pleasure loving and easygoing. Ajit Singh of Marwar and Jai Singh of Amber were won over by giving them high positions in the administration. The emperor, with a view to buy peace and save Delhi from devastation, ceded Punjab and Multan to Abdali. TOS Azam Shah declared himself successor to the throne, but was defeated in battle by Bahadur Shah. Yet he might have overextended imperial resources, positioning the Mughal empire to collapse after his death. Ali Gauhar, the son of Alamgir II became the Mughal emperor in 1759 and took up the title of Shah Alam II. Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Sikh guru, had organized the Sikhs into a military force. Muhi-ul-Milat, the grandson of KamBaksh was placed on the throne as Shah Jahan III by Imad-ul- Mulk. He made attempts to garrison Amber and replace Jai Singh with his younger brother Vijay Singh. In 1739 it was defeated by the army of the Persian shah, Nadir Shah (1688-1747). Following are the reasons that made the Mughal Empire fall: The Challenges of The Empire: He pacified Churaman Jat and Chhatrasal Bundela but continued a strict policy towards the Sikhs. No Empire could exist under the rule of such rulers. The other reason was that the size of the Mughal empire was very wide. In June 1626, after an unsuccessful rebellion by his father, Aurangzeb and his brother Dara Shukoh were kept as hostages under their grandparents' (Nur Jahan and Jahangir) Lahore court. They were constantly at war with each other. The bankrupt Persian Empire found an easy prey in the weak Mughal rule with loose defences on the north-west frontier and used the golden opportunity. Thus ended the Mughal dynasty. Besides this, the Mughal rulers spent lavishly on buildings and monuments. Essay on the causes of the decline of Mughal Empire. However, since it was a very successful Empire, it still took 150 more years for its definite end. At the time of his father’s death he was in Bihar. The Mughal Empire has been filled with remarkable women , but the most understated of them are two princesses - two sisters - who played a very crucial role during the reign of Shah Jahan and the war of succession.Princess Jahanara was the apple of her father’s eye, loved by all. They first obtained a freeman to trade with India, but gradually began interfering in Indian politics and gradually set up a British empire in India that lasted for 200 years. The Marathas: With the burial of Aurangzeb Alamgir was also buried the glory and prestige of the Mughal Empire. Imad ul Mulk ousted the Wazir Safdar Jang and became the wazir. He was the most pleasure-loving ruler of loose morals and is therefore called Muhammad Shah ‘Rangila’. But the succession war after Aurangzeb’s death certainly did not help matters. Aurangzeb … However, Banda was finally captured and put to death in 1715 during the reign of Farukh Siyar. Indian History, Medieval Period, Empires, Mughal Empire, Disintegration, Disintegration of Mughal Empire. He gave his office in 1724 and proceeded to the south and found the state of Hyderabad. After his death, his disciple Banda Bahadur carried on his his struggle against the Mughals. It is rather surprising how the fragment of the Empire continued till 1857. PreserveArticles.com: Preserving Your Articles for Eternity. They were given the office of the wazir and mirbakshi respectively. The Mughal Empire, which had reached its zenith during the rule of Shah Jahan and his son, began to decline after the rule of Aurangzeb. David Ochterlony became the first resident. The presentation of Nazrs (gifts involving sovereign status) was ended by Lord Hastings in 1813. Content Guidelines TOS4. After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, a war of succession began amongst his three surviving sons, Muazzam – the governor of Kabul, Azam-the governor of Gujarat, and Kam Baksh-the governor of Deccan. The royal patronage that they received during the days of Akbar was now lost. Disclaimer Copyright, History Discussion - Discuss Anything About History, Political Conditions During the Mughal Empire | Indian History, Decline and Disintegration of the Mughals in India, Disintegration and Fall of the Mughal Empire | Indian History, Forts in India: 5 Magnificent Ancient Forts in India, Mosques in India: 15 Ancient Mosques in India. Alliance was made with Churaman Jat and later placated Shahu by granting him Shivaji’s swarajya and the right to collect the chauth and sardeshmukhi in six provinces of the Deccan. Akbar sent Raja Ram Mohan Roy to England to seek a raise in pension. Notes on the movements of the Marathas and Sikhs against the Mughal power. No. 3. There were many causes for the downfall of this great dynasty. The truth is that such succession wars were very common in the Mughal Empire. Shahu, son of Shambhaji who was in Mughal captivity was released in 1707. Being a fanatic Sunni Muslim, he could not tolerate even the Shias. Kam Baksh too declared himself the sovereign ruler and conquered important places as Gulbarga and Hyderabad. The administrator of Mughal Kingdom support and grow this dynasty. 4. During the Mughal era, the gross domestic product (GDP) of India in 1600 was estimated at about 22% of the world economy, the second largest in the world, behind only Ming China but larger than Europe. The death of Aurangzeb is believed to have marked the beginning of the modern period. An excess of wealth and luxury made the Mughal army lazy, corrupt and inefficient. Azam turned to Ahmednagar and proclaimed himself emperor. empire in India that held power for roughly 200 years between the early 16th and early. The Sayyid brothers were convinced that if the real authority were in their hands the empire would be safeguarded from perishing. In Deccan, only Raja Ali Khan of Khandesh accept Mughal suzerainty. That sealed the fate of the Empire. Although the Government did not get much by this method, the people were ruined. The weak defenses of the northwest encouraged Ahmad Shah Abdali, who invaded India twice in 1749 and 1752, when he marched upto Delhi. Bahadur Shah made reconciliation with Guru Gobind Singh and granted him high mansab. Ahmad Shah Abdali invaded Delhi in 1757 and the imperial city was plundered. Humayun’s officer Bairam Khan crowned 13 … He also did not recognize Shahu as the rightful Maratha king thus keeping the fight for supremacy going between Tara Bai and Shahu. The Rise of Regional Powers after the Death of Aurangzeb! He plundered the royal treasury at his, own pleasure and carried back the immense wealth from India. Aurangzeb's policies towards the decline of Mughal empire • Aurangzeb’s religious policy was largely responsible for the downfall of the Mughal Empire. ‘He was deposed by the Marathas who captured Delhi in 1760. After Aurangzeb, no Mughal emperor rightly deserved to be an emperor. Emperor Muhammad Shah was taken prisoner and Nadir Shah marched on to Delhi. The Mughal Empire was one of the largest and most influential polities in Indian, and indeed world, history - dominating the subcontinent throughout the early modern period. All the articles you read in this site are contributed by users like you, with a single vision to liberate knowledge. But he also introduced the evil practice of revenue – farming or Ijarah whereby the government established contact with the revenue farmers and middlemen who paid the government a fixed amount while they were free to collect whatever they could from the peasant. The proud Mughal Empire which had ruled the north for two centuries was declining and soon the emperor of Delhi became a pensioner for the British. After Aurangzeb, no Mughal emperor rightly deserved to be an emperor. That was however recovered in 1712 by the Sikhs. Aurangzeb grew the Mughal empire to its greatest extent, adding four new provinces that collectively constituted more than one-quarter of the Mughal kingdom. The sceptre of such a vast empire was the bow of Ulysses and particularly when the rot had already been too deep, it … The Mughal authority defeated Banda Bahadur at Lohgarh, a fort built by Guru Govind Singh. They were branded as anti-Islamic for their policies. Welcome to HistoryDiscussion.net! Disclaimer Farrukh Siyar came to power with the help of Sayyid brothers, Abdullah Khan and Hussain Ali Khan Barha – the kingmakers. What were the main Causes of the Decline of the Mughal Empire in India? Muazzam defeated both Azam at Jajau in 1707 and Kam Baksh near Hyderabad in 1708. After the death of Shah Alam II, his son succeeded as Akbar Shah II. After his death Nizam-ul-Mulk was appointed the wazir in 1722. Akbar (AD 1556-1605) Third Mughal emperor Akbar. There was however a deterioration in the field of administration in his reign because he lavishly granted jagirs and promotions. Brief note of Shivaji and the Rise of the Marathas, Controlling in Management # Meaning, Definition, Types, Process, Steps and Techniques. Nadir Shah was attracted to India by her fabulous wealth for which she was famous. In return Shahu promised them help in the Deccan with fifteen thousand soldiers. He was learned, dignified and tried to reverse some of the narrow-minded policies and measures adopted by Aurangzeb. That sealed the destiny of the Empire. But the invasions of Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah Abdali gave the Sikhs a fresh opportunity to once again challenge the authority of the Mughals. Finally, the foreign invasions completely shattered the economy. PreserveArticles.com is an online article publishing site that helps you to submit your knowledge so that it may be preserved for eternity. The two brothers soon acquired dominant control over the affairs of the state. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Aurangzeb, thus “himself gave a green signal to the forces of decay” and so after his death the mighty empire disintegrated into smaller states. He brought the entire area to the west of the Sutlej under his control. After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, a war of succession began amongst his three surviving sons, Muazzam – the governor of Kabul, Azam-the governor of Gujarat, and Kam Baksh-the governor of Deccan. Perhaps most worryingly for the Mughal emperor, he relied heavily on Rajput warriors, who by this time formed the backbone of his southern army and were faithful Hindus. The Maratha sardars were still confined to the south and the Rajput’s were loyal to the Mughals. By the end of the eighteenth century, Ranjii Singh, however, brought them together and founded a Sikh kingdom. But by the close of the century it had shrunk to a few kilometres around Delhi. The efforts made by the Sayyid brothers did not yield great results because they were constantly faced with rival factions and conspiracies in the court. The Rajputs were strong military-like warriors but they had a major drawback in that they never organized themselves into a single power. Now they could not even go to the battlefield without their train of attendants and women. The successors of Aurangzeb proved incapable and degenerate. They too turned against him. Some of the wars did not add even an inch to the Mughal Empire. New powers such as the Sikhs, Jats and Marathas came onto the scene. This created anarchy. In the end, the Mughal Empire ruled only over Delhi. He granted them the sardeshmukhi of the Deccan but not the chauth. Each one, used nobles and members of the royal family to get the throne thereby dividing the nobles who fought for their self-interest only. Aurangzeb was largely responsible for the downfall of the empire. The Sayyid brothers followed a policy of religious tolerance. Ghulam Qadir was defeated and executed by Mahadji Sindhia at Meerut in 1789 and Shah Alam II was reinstated as Sindhia’s pensioner. Privacy Policy3. We have read that during the reign of Shahjahan, the war of succession started. PreserveArticles.com is a free service that lets you to preserve your original articles for eternity. The Mughal Empire was vast and extensive in the beginning of the eighteenth century. After the death of Akbar II, Bahadur Shah II became the Emperor. In this way, Aurangzeb defeated all his three brothers and got the throne of the Mughal Empire.Though he got the throne after a civil war with his own brothers.But the financial condition of the Mughal Empire was not good at that time. It was not the main reason. The hostile nobles united themselves under the leadership of Nizam-ul-Mulk of the Deccan. His empire was the world's largest economy, valued 25% of world's GDP. Consequently, each time a ruler died, a war of succession between the brothers for the throne started. This history is seen to conclude with the achievement of independence in 1947. His excessive obsession with the Deccan also destroyed the Mughal army, the treasury and also adversely affected his health. 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